How to Start a Profitable Pig Farming Business - Life Beyond Certificate

How to Start a Profitable Pig Farming Business

Pig Farming Business

Piggery is the rearing of pigs for commercial needs. In Nigeria, pig farming is a very lucrative business. One reason to succeed as a pig farmer is a high demand for pork meat. Pigs reproduce in large numbers; this provides a high return to those in the business. A pig can birth up to 15piglets at once, and this multiplication rate is very profitable. 

A matured boar can go for the range of N45000-75000, and if the cost of a pig is multiplied by 100-150 pigs which gross about 4.5-7.5 million naira in profits.

Do you want to start a piggery? Here are guidelines on succeeding as a pig farmer?

Get a Land for Breeding

When starting a pig farm, getting land is a top priority for a commercial farm. A large plot of land is required for open grazing and space for feeding and moving about. The cost of purchasing land is dependent on the location. In rural areas, the land is cheaper than in urban areas. Pigs need space to play and graze freely.

Build a pen

Building a big and spacious pen is essential. A pen should have a proper drainage system to avoid waterlogging, which breeds disease vector. The pen should be kept clean with a water pool where they can keep themselves calm and swim around. Pigs are susceptible to heat, and they become sick or die due to excessive heat or cold temperatures. Control the temperature to help maximize growth and production of the pig rearing business love staying wet places. Pens should be sited away from residential areas. 

Buy healthy pigs

Before setting out to purchase pigs, there has to be a check on the state of health, check records of illness, and be vaccinated appropriately. A farmer could startup with a few piglets and increase when the business progresses. Understand how to care for piglets properly. Hire the services of a trained veterinary doctor for regular health checks and proper nutrition processes. Buy pure breed stock from a well-known breeder that owns quality stock.

Hire workers

The need to employ workers to manage a large scale piggery is vital. Workers are needed to clean, feed and manage the piggery.

Feeding and Nutrition

Healthy and well-fed pigs give good returns. It is essential to put great efforts into feeding the pigs to avoid losses. Pigs’ food must be rich in protein, fibre, carbohydrates, minerals and vitamins for proper growth and body functions. Pigs require a fresh water supply for healthy living. Water troughs should be cleaned regularly. Make use of galvanized troughs for easy cleaning.

Housing and bonding

Pigs should be kept away from predators by placing them installed, or pig stays. Sawdust is best used for beddings; the shelter should be free from chemicals. The shelter should be adequately fenced around using hot wire or perimeter fencing.

Worming and breeding

Regular inoculation of pens and pigs with pig vaccine every 6 months to get worms, ectoparasites, or other deworming products out of the pen. Pigs should be grown for 6 months before they are ready for breeding.


The pig gestation period takes about 114 days, and the sows should be separated from other pigs to enhance breeding. Piglets are to breed in a nursery for about 8-10 weeks. They should be separated from the after weaning and feed to market weight.

Pigs grow from birth at 4 pounds to 250 pounds in five and a half months.

Tools used for pig Farming

Pig farrowing crate

Pig nipple drinker

Pig feeders

Pig gestation crates

Piglet Nursery crate

Piglet heating equipment

Marketing of pigs

Pigs are in high demand as a good source of meat and protein, and they can be sold in the local markets to consumers. Pork meat can be roasted and sold as snacks; the meat is sold to eateries and food processing companies. Piglets or matured pigs can be sold to farmers. A processed pig can be used to make hot dogs imported to other countries. Statistics have shown that pork accounts for about $3billion of consumption value in Nigeria and Ghana alone. China is one of the top consumers of pork meat.

Rearing livestock for a commercial purpose is an excellent agro-business; pig farming is one of the top animal rearing ventures to practice. It yields good returns as pigs reproduce in large quantities, which is advantageous to farmers. The cost of a pig, when sold in large quantities, gives good returns on investments. There is a gap in the market because pig farmers are few in Nigeria.

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